History of plastic surgery
«Plastikos» in Greek language means «create form», in Latin «plasticus» — sculpting, shaping.
These words best demonstrate what plastic surgeons. Throughout the history of medicine was not a period when not practiced surgery for the reconstruction of the appearance of the person. In Egypt in the time of the invention of papyrus (1600 BC), surgeons were concerned about the aesthetic aspects of its operations. It can be assumed that the basis of the technique of the operations described in the papyri, formed of more ancient knowledge, which gives us an even earlier date — around 3000 BC
In India in year 800 BC was able to do plastic surgery to fix a nose, using skin from the forehead or cheeks. In the surviving documents of the healer from Ancient China bian qiuye, who lived in the V century BC, described the performed operations on the eyes and ears. The famous physician, Hua tuo, who lived in China in 150-208 years BC, also left notes with detailed description of the various plastic surgeries. In the records of the physicians of China met data on surgical intervention for correction of «cleft lip», as well as procedures aimed at correcting the shape and appearance.
Until the XVII century, the success of the Indian surgery was more significant than the European one. In Europe, however, was known only isolated cases of such operations. In the VII century BC in Alexandria Poulos Ajdinski carried out operations aimed at male breast reduction if it was too large. This disease is called gynecomastia. Surgery to reduce the size of the male breast is carried out in modern surgery. For getting rid of excess weight modern plastic surgeons use the liposuction technique. However, in the first century BC this method of dealing with obesity is described in the surviving records of surgeons. Plastic surgery in the Renaissance was identified as an independent field of medicine called «surgery of beauty.» Extant treatise 1597 Italian Gaspar, Tagliacozzi on the restoration of damaged noses with pieces of tissue from the forearm. Of tagliacozzi developed a technique and successfully carried out operations on reconstruction of the nose, for which modern surgeons awarded him the title of founder of plastic surgery. However, the contemporaries of the achievements of the first talented plastic surgeon appreciated not appreciated. Considering his actions criminal, they buried him in unhallowed ground, so it was decided to bury villains and suicide.
The basis for modern plastic surgery was founded in the early nineteenth century, when surgeons have developed better tools and methods for the transformation of human appearance (emergence and spread of antiseptics made it possible to produce skin grafts, cartilage, other tissues).
In the middle of 1920-ies, after the first world war, in Europe, a great many crippled people who didn’t want to put up with the shortcomings and addressed to the surgeons with requests to improve not only the function of a particular damaged body parts, but also its appearance. Plastic surgeons have been pioneers in the development of hundreds of innovative methods, including transplantation of tissues, microvascular, techniques for oral and maxillofacial surgery and lobectomy. One of the pioneers and founders of plastic and reconstructive surgery is a well-known Armenian-American surgeon Varazdat Gesunden.
Further improvement of the technique for skin grafts after the second world war in the 1950-ies and a new quality of anesthesia (the ability to conduct operations under local anesthesia) has made plastic surgery safer and therefore more common.
Plastic surgery in the USSR and Russia[edit | edit the code]
In Russia, aesthetic surgery had to go the hard way. The Russian Ministry of health officially recognized plastic surgery as an independent specialty in July 2009. However, the history of plastic surgery in our country has crossed a century mark. In the 60-ies of the XIX century Professor Y. K. Szymanowski was created invaluable significance for the work «Operation on the surface of the human body».
In 1936, the Soviet Union was published in Russian, translated from the German book by E. Eitner «Cosmetic surgery» edited by Professor A. Rauer. In 1930 in Moscow on the street Semashko, 5 opened a hospital headed by Nadezhda Nikolaevna Gilels, where for the first time in the Soviet Union began to hold regular cosmetic plastic surgery. Of surgeons-plastics at that time the Soviet medical schools are not prepared, therefore, such a large role in training personnel for the Soviet plastic surgery, played by outstanding surgeons Anastas G. Lapchinskii and Alexander Markovich Litinsky. Thanks to these ascetics of medicine in the Soviet Union had the first generation of surgeons-plastics.
The situation began to change radically only in the 80-ies of XX century. At this time a new branch is being developed on the basis of the Russian cancer research center named after N. N. Blokhin, where he first developed the technique of breast reconstruction after radical mastectomy — patent Sergei Nikolaevich Blokhin.